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文献综述怎么写 Literature review常用句型短句分享

文献综述怎么写 Literature review常用句型短句分享,需要新西兰代写assignment

1. General comments on the relevant literature

The literature on X has highlighted several …

Different theories exist in the literature regarding …

More recent attention has focused on the provision of …

There are relatively few historical studies in the area of …

A large and growing body of literature has investigated …

Much of the literature since the mid-1990s emphasises the …

Much of the current literature on X pays particular attention to …

There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of …

The existing literature on X is extensive and focuses particularly on …

There is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with …

The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.

A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …

Previous research findings into X have been inconsistent and contradictory (Smith, 1996; …).

The academic literature on X has revealed the emergence of several contrasting themes.

2. Previous research: a historical perspective

Research into X has a long history.

For many years, this phenomenon was surprisingly neglected by …

Only in the past ten years have studies of X directly addressed how …

Prior to the work of Smith (1983), the role of X was largely unknown.

Over the past decade, most research in X has emphasized the use of …

In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on …

Early examples of research into X include … (Smith, 1962; Jones, 1974).

During the past 30 years, much more information has become available on …

The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with …

Over the past two decades, major advances in molecular biology have allowed …

Historically, research investigating the factors associated with X has focused on …

It is only since the work of Smith (2001) that the study of X has gained momentum.

The construct of X was first articulated by Smith (1977) and popularised in his book: …

Around the early 1960s, small-scale research and case studies began to emerge linking …

It was not until the late 1960s that historians considered X worthy of scholarly attention.

Awareness of X is not recent, having possibly first been described in the 5th century BCE by …

3. Previous research: methodological approaches taken

Most research on X has been carried out in …

Most researchers investigating X have utilised …

Using this approach, researchers have been able to …

Several systematic reviews of X have been undertaken.

The vast majority of studies on X have been quantitative.

What we know about X is largely based on observational studies.

There are a number of large cross-sectional studies which suggest …

Much of the previous research on X has been exploratory in nature.

Much of the X research has focused on identifying and evaluating the …

What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …

Publications that concentrate on X more frequently adopt a historical or chronological approach

4. Previous research: area investigated

To date, several studies have investigated …

A number of studies have begun to examine …

Various studies have assessed the efficacy of …

Researchers attempted to evaluate the impact of …

A great deal of previous research into X has focused on …

Several studies have used longitudinal data to examine …

Previous studies have explored the relationships between X and Y.

Twenty cohort study analyses have examined the relationship between …

A number of authors have considered the effects of … (Smith, 2003; Jones, 2004).

At least 120 case-control studies worldwide have examined the relationship between …

Numerous studies have attempted to explain … (for example, Smith, 1996; Jones, 1998; …).

5. Previous research: what has been established or proposed

Several lines of evidence suggest that …

Previous research has established that …

Data from several studies suggest that …

It is now well established from a variety of studies that …

A number of studies have postulated a convergence between …

Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …

Many recent studies (e.g. Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) have shown that …

Traditionally, it has been argued that … (e.g. Smith, 1960; Jones, 1972).

Several biographies of Brown have been published. Smith (2013) presents …

In previous studies on X, different variables have been found to be related to …

Many historians have argued that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; Smith, 1994).

There is a consensus among social scientists that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; …

Data from several sources have identified the increased X and Y associated with obesity.

It has been demonstrated that a high intake of X results in damage to … (Smith, 1998; …).

There is a large number of published studies (e.g., Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) that describe …

Some cross-sectional studies suggest an association between X and Y (Smith, 2004; Jones, 2005).

It has been suggested that levels of X are independent of the size of the Y (Smith et al., 1995).

It has conclusively been shown that X and Y increase Z (Smith et al., 1999; Jones, 2001 …).

To date/Thus far/Up to now,

several studies/previous studies/a number of studies

have used …

found …

reported …

shown that…

indicated that …

linked X with Y.

suggested that …

demonstrated that …

begun to examine the use of …

confirmed the effectiveness of …

revealed a correlation between X and Y.

highlighted factors that are associated with …

6. Stating what is currently known about the topic

X, Y and Z appear to be closely linked (Smith, 2008).

X appears to be positively related to both Y and Z (Smith, 2007)

X is a principal determining factor of Y (Smith, 2005; Jones, 2013).

X is one of the most intense reactions following CHD (Lane, 2003).

There is an unambiguous relationship between X and Y (Rao, 1998).

X is significantly reduced during the first months of … (Smith, 2000; Jones, 2006).

X has been found to oppose the anti-inflammatory actions of Y on Z (Alourfi, 2004).

GM varieties of maize are able to cross-pollinate with non-GM varieties (Smith, 1998; O’Brien, …

A relationship exists between an individual’s working memory and their ability to … (Jones, 2002).

7. Reference to a previous investigation: researcher prominent

Smith (1999)

showed that reducing X to 190oC decreased … (see Figure 2).

demonstrated that when the maximum temperature is exceeded …

found that as levels of literacy and education of the population rise …

Jones et al. (2001)

compared the rate of …

labelled these subsets as …

measured both components of the …

used a survey to assess the various …

identified parents of disabled children as …

set up a series of virtual experiments using …

examined the flow of international students …

carried out a number of investigations into the …

studied the effects of X on unprotected nerve cells.

analysed the data from 72 countries and concluded that …

interviewed 250 undergraduate students using semi-structured …

performed a similar series of experiments in the 1960s to show that …

reviewed the literature from the period and found little evidence for this …

conducted a series of trials in which he mixed X with different quantities of …

investigated the differential impact of formal and non-formal education on …

8. Reference to a previous investigation: time prominent

In 1959, a seminal article was published entitled …

In 1889, Brown performed a bilateral ablation of the …

In 1859, the publication of X had a major impact on …

In 1965, Jones published his major historic survey of …

In 1975, Smith et al. published a paper in which they described …

In 1984, Jones et al. made several amino acid esters of X and evaluated them as …

In 1981, Smith and co-workers demonstrated that X induced in vitro resistance to …

In 1990, Patel et al. demonstrated that replacement of H2O with heavy water led to …

In 1990, Al-Masry et al. reported a new and convenient synthetic procedure to obtain …

Thirty years later, Smith (1974) reported three cases of X which …

In the 1950s, Gunnar Myrdal pointed to some of the ways in which …

Following World War 1, Fleming actively searched for anti-bacterial agents.

Almost 20 years ago, Jones (1985) formulated his X theory, centred around …

9. Reference to a previous investigation: investigation prominent

One longitudinal study found that …

A seminal study in this area is the work of …

One study by Smith (2014) examined the trend in …

A recent study by Smith and Jones (2012) involved …

A qualitative study by Smith (2003) described how …

A recent systematic literature review concluded that …

Preliminary work on X was undertaken by Jones (1992).

A longitudinal study of X by Smith (2012) reports that …

A key study comparing X and Y is that of Smith (2010), in which …

The first systematic study of X was reported by Smith et al. in 1986.

Detailed examination of X by Smith and Jones (1961) showed that …

Analysis of the genes involved in X was first carried out by Smith et al. (1983).

A significant analysis and discussion on the subject was presented by Smith (1988).

The study of the structural behaviour of X was first carried out by Jones et al. (1986).

A small scale study by Smith (2012) reached different conclusions, finding no increase in …

The study by Jones (1990) offers probably the most comprehensive empirical analysis of …

In an analysis of X, Smith et al. (2012) found …

In a follow-up study, Smith et al. (2009) found that …

In an investigation into X, Smith et al. (2012) found …

In a study investigating X, Smith (2004) reported that …

In a comprehensive study of X, Jones (2001) found that …

In a study conducted by Smith (1978), it was shown that …

In studies of rats given X, Smith and colleagues found that …

In a study which set out to determine X, Smith (2012) found that …

In a randomised controlled study of X, Smith (2012) reported that …

In another major study, Smith (1974) found that just over half of the …

In a recent cross-sectional study, Smith (2006b) investigated whether …

In a large longitudinal study, Smith et al. (2012) investigated the incidence of X in Y.

In one well-known recent experiment, limits on X were found to be … (Smith, 2013)

10. Reference to a previous investigation: topic prominent

To determine the effects of X, Jones et al. (2005) compared …

X was originally isolated from Y in a soil sample from … (Jones et al., 1952).

The electronic spectroscopy of X was first studied by Smith and Jones in 1970.

X formed the central focus of a study by Smith (2002) in which the author found …

To better understand the mechanisms of X and its effects, Jones (2013) analysed the …

X was first demonstrated experimentally by Pavlov (Smith, 2002). In his seminal study …

The acid-catalyzed condensation reaction between X and Y was first reported by Smith in 1872.

The way in which X is regulated was studied extensively by Smith and colleagues (Smith et al. 1995 and 1998).

11. Reference to what other writers do in their text

In Chapter 2, Smith provides us with a number of important …

In the subsequent chapter, Smith examines the extent to which …

By drawing on the concept of X, Smith has been able to show that …

Some analysts (e.g. Carnoy, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between …

Drawing on an extensive range of sources, the authors set out the different ways in which …

Other authors (see Harbison, 2003; Kaplan, 2004) question the usefulness of such an approach.

Smith (2000)

identifies X, Y, and Z as the major causes of …

draws on an extensive range of sources to assess …

highlights the need to break the link between X and Y.

uses examples of these various techniques as evidence that …

mentions the special situation of Singapore as an example of …

questions whether mainstream schools are the best environment for …

draws our attention to distinctive categories of X often observed in …

considers whether countries work well on cross-border issues such as …

discusses the challenges and strategies for facilitating and promoting …

provides in-depth analysis of the work of Aristotle showing its relevance to …

defines evidence based medicine as the conscious, explicit and judicious use of …

lists three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are: …

traces the development of Japanese history and philosophy during the 19th century.

In her review of …,

In her major study,

In her analysis of …,

In her case study of …,

In her introduction to …,

In her seminal article,

In her classic critique of …,

In her interesting analysis of …,

Smith (2012) identifies five characteristics of …

12. Reference to another writer’s idea or position

According to Smith (2003), preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and therefore …

As noted by Smith (2003) X is far more cost effective, and therefore …

Smith (2013)

argues

claims

suggests

maintains

concludes

points out

that preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and therefore better adapted to the developing world.

Smith (2013)

offers

proposes

suggests

argues for

an explanatory theory for each type of irrational belief.

13. Synthesising material: bringing sources together

Similarly, Nicoladis (2006) found that X …

In the same vein, Smith (1994) in his book XYZ notes …

This view is supported by Jones (2000) who writes that …

Smith argues that her data support O’Brien’s (1988) view that …

Al-Masry’s (1986) work on X is complemented by Smith’s (2009) study of …

Almost every paper that has been written on X includes a section relating to …

Unlike Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …

In contrast to Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …

A broader perspective has been adopted by Smith (2013) who argues that …

Conversely, Wang (2010) reported no significant difference in mortality between X and Y.

Smith argues that …

Al-Masry (2003) sees X as …

Similarly, Jones (2013) asserts that …

Likewise, Wang (2012) holds the view that …

Some writers (e.g. Smith, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between …

Some authors have mainly been interested in questions concerning X and Y (Smith, 2001; Jones …

Much of the available literature on X deals with the question of …

Others (see Jones, 2003; Brown, 2004) question the usefulness of …

Others have highlighted the relevance of …

But Smith (2008) is much more concerned with …

Zhao (2002) notes that …

Smith (2013) found that X accounted for 30% of Y.

However, Jennings’ (2010) study of Y found no link between …

Other researchers, however, who have looked at X, have found … Jones (2010), for example, …

Smith (2010) presents an X account,

While Smith (2008) focusses on X, whilst Jones (2011) …

Jones (2009) is more concerned with …

14. Some ways of introducing quotations

Commenting on X, Smith (2003) argues: ‘… …’

As Carnoy (2004: 215) states: ‘there are many good reasons to be sceptical’.

As Smith argues: ‘In the past, the purpose of education was to …’ (Smith, 2000:150).

In the final part of the Theses on Feuerbach, Marx writes: ‘Philosophers have hitherto only …’

Sachs concludes: ‘The idea of development stands today like a ruin in …’ (Sachs, 1992a: 156).

As Smith (2013: 320)

notes: ‘… … … … … ‘

argues ‘ … … … … … ‘

writes: ‘ … … … … … ‘

observes: ‘ … … … … … ‘

points out: ‘ … … … … … ‘

reminds us: ‘ … … … … … ‘

15. Summarising the review or parts of the review

Together, these studies indicate that …

Overall, these studies highlight the need for …

Considering all of this evidence, it seems that …

Collectively, these studies outline a critical role for…

In all the studies reviewed here, X is recognised as …

The evidence presented in this section suggests that …

The studies presented thus far provide evidence that …

Taken together, these studies support the notion that …

Overall, there seems to be some evidence to indicate that …

Together these studies provide important insights into the …

All of the studies reviewed here support the hypothesis that …

Two important themes emerge from the studies discussed so far:

However, such studies remain narrow in focus dealing only with …

The evidence reviewed here seems to suggest a pertinent role for …

These studies clearly indicate that there is a relationship between …

In view of all that has been mentioned so far, one may suppose that …

There remain several aspects of X about which relatively little is known.

Data source: Academic Phrasebank – A compendium of academic phraseology

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