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卡佛给出参考“奇怪的车”和“灰码(5)并列的物质在第一三行。诗人巧妙的展示商品的价值,只有一条社会阶级的区别。这一环节与马克思的异化的资本主义生产对劳动者的影响理论。在诗歌中,这些实物是存在的,这样读者就可以在社会阶级中找到明显的对比,然而那些受制于它的人却处于错误意识之下,因为这是资本主义社会运作的方式。根据Bertell Ollman的说法,他认为,所有的类都是某种形式的异化,但它是“无产阶级的苦难是最严重的。’(奥尔曼,2014)遵循这一思路,我们可以看到的物质商品给Shiftless的对比,突出对劳动的剥削。参考灰尘码表明资本主义制度占主导地位的阶级斗争和诗的历史反映了贫困,无产阶级经历。在他的诗里,雕工巧妙地表示自己对生命的看法来模拟控制的资本主义制度为他统计“我的目标一直都是要得过且过。我在那看到的优点。’(8和9)的诗人Jim McGarrah说,“这种不断变化的状态和经济稳定的战斗开始在卡佛的个人生活费”(麦加拉,2009)突出了资本主义控制霸气的效果。“无为”思想(11)与马克思的意识形态观相联系,意识形态是日常现实的一部分。Terry Eagleton是一位文学理论家,他认为“人们都在为自己的不幸而投资”(伊格尔顿,1991, 13),这就说明了为什么卡弗在诗歌中经历了简单的活动。“随地吐痰”。(15)位于自身或者强调这个懒惰的行为是不是受到了剥削制度,商品更有价值更有吸引力。


Carver gives reference to ‘strange cars’ and ‘dusty yards’ (5) to juxtapose the material goods in the first three lines. The poet cleverly shows the distinction between the value of commodities and the social classes in just one line. This links in with Marx’s alienation theory of the effect of the capitalist production on labourers. These material objects are there in the poem so that the reader can identify the clear contrast in social class; however those who are subject to it are under the false consciousness as it is the way a capitalist society works. According to Bertell Ollman, he argues that all classes are under some form of alienation, but it is ‘the proletariat’s affliction is the most severe.’ (Ollman, 2014) Following this idea, we can see the contrast of material commodities given in Shiftless, which highlights the exploitation of labour. The reference to ‘dusty yards’ suggests the capitalist system dominates the history of class struggle and the poem reflects the poverty that the proletariat undergo.In his poem, Carver cleverly represents his own opinion of life to mock the capitalist system of control as he stats ‘My goal was always / to be shiftless. I saw the merit in that.’(8 & 9) The poet Jim McGarrah states that ‘This constant state of flux and the battle for economic stability began to take a toll on Carver’s personal life’ (McGarrah, 2009) which highlights the domineering effect of the capitalist control. The idea of ‘doing nothing’ (11) links in with Marx’s view of ideology and how ideology is part of everyday reality. Terry Eagleton, a literary theorist, argues that ‘people invest in their own unhappiness’ (Eagleton, 1991, 13) which suggests why Carver experiences simple activities in the poem. The word ‘Spitting.’ (15) is positioned on its own to perhaps emphasise how this shiftless behaviour is seen to be more appealing than being a subject to an exploitive system where commodities are of more value.


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