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While these difficulties tend to arise more conspicuously in classrooms involving younger students, adult learners may benefit more from task-based instruction. In general, adult learners demonstrate distinctive characteristics that set them apart from younger learners, and some of these learning characteristics make task-based approach more plausible and appropriate for adult learners. Knowles (1990) developed adult learning theory of Andragogy based on the following assumptions: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something, (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults are life-centered (or task- or problem-centered) in their orientation to learning, (4) Adults become ready to learn when their life situation create a need to learn, (5) Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, and (6) Adults are motivated to learn by internal factors rather than external ones. According to these assumptions, adult learners are more motivated and more eager to learn than younger learners, have clearer goals and needs than younger learners who often might be learning a language only because it is required, and take control of their own learning. They are also oriented towards problem-solving learning and they learn best when knowledge is presented in real-life context. Obviously, constructivist task-based instructional approach and Andragogy share many aspects in common as they both emphasize ownership of the learning process by learners, experiential learning and a problem-solving approach to learning (Huang, 2002). Therefore, task-based approach can be seen as an ideal match for adult learners who in general are less likely to pose above mentioned concerns voiced by teachers.


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