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有人指出,这些学者关注的是目的语和源语之间的对应关系,因此这些翻译方法被统称为“语言方法”。Saldanha(2009: 148)认为,翻译研究的语言方法是指“将翻译和/或口译作为(主要)语言过程,因此主要由语言理论提供信息的理论模型”。翻译研究属于应用语言学范畴,因此采用语言学中发展起来的方法进行研究(Schaeffner 2001: 6)。其他对这一领域研究有贡献的学者还有Catford(1965)和House(1977/1981)。翻译被视为一种信息从一种语言转移到另一种语言,作为一种活动,只影响所涉及的两种语言。因此,学者们关心的是如何从一种语言翻译到另一种语言,以便在目标语言中再现与源文本相同的信息。其中一个处方是Vinay和Dabelnet(1958/2994)的七种翻译方法或程序:借用、calque、直译、移位、调制、对等和改编。前三种方法被称为直接翻译,因为它们涉及到按元素替换源语言消息元素,而后四种方法被称为斜译,因为它们涉及到打乱源语言的句法顺序。


One observes that these scholars are concerned with the correspondence between the target language and the source language and these approaches were thus collectively called ‘linguistic approaches’ to translation. According to Saldanha (2009: 148), the term linguistic approaches to translation studies is used to refer to ‘theoretical models that represent translation and/ or interpreting as a (primarily) linguistic process and are therefore informed mainly by linguistic theory’. Translation studies was subsumed under applied linguistics and thus studied with methods developed in linguistics (Schaeffner 2001: 6). Other scholars that contributed to research in this area are Catford (1965) and House (1977/1981). Translation was seen as a transfer of information from one language to another, as an activity that affects just the two languages involved. Thus scholars were concerned with prescribing methods of translating from one language to the other in order to reproduce in the target language a message that is equivalent to that of the source text. One such prescription was Vinay and Dabelnet’s (1958/2994) seven methods or procedures for translation: borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation. The first three they call direct translations as they involve transposing the source language message element by element, while the last four they call oblique because they involve an upsetting of the syntactic order of the source language.


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