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In 2011 Gallagher used hopelessness ratings as a way to compare prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy. The study found a relatively strong association between feelings of hopelessness and PTSD symptoms. Hopelessness is a well known and discussed symptom of PTSD. It can lead to self destructive behaviors and limit future planning. Hopelessness is often used as a measurement to gauge a person’s level of trauma processing.In 2005, Finkelhor showed that juvenile victims are prone to re-victimization which further compounds the negative affects of trauma. In this sample, Finkelhor found that twenty-two percent of victimized children experienced four or more different forms of victimization in just the previous year. This makes sense as we know that trauma survivors are known to consciously or subconsciously attempt to relive events and can put themselves in dangerous situations in an attempt to gain control of past experiences. Untreated childhood and adolescent trauma can lead to more psychological damage and further limit life outcomes.In 2005, Anda found a correlation between a high levels of perceived stress and ACE scores. As participants reported more adverse childhood experiences they also reported higher levels of stress. A low stress tolerance does not lend itself to higher education and an individual would probably be less likely to start college if they already feel they are under a lot of stress. The study also found increased depressed affects as participants reported more ACEs. Fifty percent of participants with ACEs of four or more, presented with a depressed affect and only eighteen percent of participants having zero ACEs. Depression causes a lack of motivation which will also inhibit higher achievement.


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