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由于形成性评价是与学习相关的收益,(黑色和威廉1998),学习是积极的影响间接地通过采用建设性的教学策略与学习。形成性评价可以通过提问、师生讨论、同伴自我评价、与同伴交往等方式进行。形成性评价也将确定学生的个人学习需求,支持教师进行分化,保证学生前进,在他们的最近发展区和优化的学习收获。 然而,随着行为主义,反馈的机会也只限于是否响应所需的是否正确。有很少的学习范围,或如何改善,以满足所需的响应。因此,在行为主义的方法,反馈不能用于学习用途,因此对学习的机会,这表明加强学习,不一定有收获。因此,有限反馈结合行为主义的方法客观的结果意味着个体学生的需求不一定是公式的一部分时,考虑到教学策略和课程内容。需要考虑个体的需要是不可否认的,因此反馈范围的限制对学生的教学和学习提出了许多问题。


Since formative assessment alone is associated with learning gains, (Black and Wiliam 1998), learning is positively influenced indirectly via adopting teaching strategies which are aligned to learning constructively. Formative assessment may be undertaken through questioning, teacher and pupil discussion, peer and self assessment and interaction with peers. Formative assessment will also identify pupils’ individual learning needs, supporting teachers conduct in differentiation to assure pupils are moving forward, across their ZPD and optimise learning gains.However, with behaviourism, the opportunities for feedback are confined to only whether the response desired is correct or not. There is little scope for learning, or how to improve in order to meet the desired response. Therefore, under behaviourist approaches, feedback cannot be used for learning purposes, therefore opportunities for assessment for learning, which have shown to enhance learning, may not be fruitful. Consequently, limited feedback combined with the objective outcomes of behaviourist approaches mean that individual student needs are not necessarily part of the formulae when considering teaching strategies and subject content. The need to consider individual needs is undeniable, therefore such constraints of feedback extent presents a multitude of problems to the teaching and learning of students.


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