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新西兰惠灵顿理工学院论文代写:建构主义学习理论

源于建构主义学习理论,任务型教学已经出现在响应传统的PPP(演示,实践和性能)范式的限制(埃利斯,2003)。虽然PPP的方法是相对简单和结构良好,容易理解的学生和新手教师,它也被批评的特点,它是过于教师导向和过度控制。此外,全球化的趋势,促使教育工作者和政府提高第二语言学习者之间的交际能力,PPP的方法并没有有效地履行使命。短,harste & Burke认为语言教学行为PPP方法已建立所需的目标独立的学习者的情况,在一个结构化的和线性的方式呈现语言,然后试图通过加强非语境化的实践内容。因此,学习者最终知道了语言,但不知道如何使用它(如引用阿卜杜拉,1998)。作为一个替代的PPP范例,任务型课程的设计围绕真实和有意义的现实世界的任务,学习者被要求完成合作,因为他们之间的相互作用,利用所有可用的语言资源,他们自己。该方法是基于基本假设,如Jeon(2006)指出,语言学习是一个发展的过程,促进沟通和社会互动而不是通过语言获取项目的一个产品,而“学习者学习目标语言更有效时,他们自然暴露于有意义的任务型活动。

新西兰惠灵顿理工学院论文代写:建构主义学习理论

Stemming from the constructivist theory of learning, task-based instruction has emerged in response to the limitations of the traditional PPP (presentation, practice and performance) paradigm (Ellis, 2003). While the PPP approach is relatively straightforward and well-structured to be easily understood by both students and beginner teachers, it has also been criticized considerably for the characteristic that it is far too teacher-oriented and over controlled. Furthermore, the trend of globalization has urged educators and governments to improve communicative competence among second language learners, and the PPP approach has not been effective in fulfilling the mission. Short, Harste & Burke argued that the behaviorist PPP approach in language instruction has been to set up desired goals independently of the learners or the situation, present language in a structured and linear fashion, then attempt to reinforce the content through non-contextualized practices. As a result, learners end up knowing about the language but not how to use it (as cited in Abdullah, 1998). As an alternative to the PPP paradigm, task-based lesson is designed around authentic and meaningful real-world tasks, which learners are asked to complete collaboratively as they interact among each other making use of all available language resources they own. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that, as Jeon (2006) noted, language learning is a developmental process promoting communication and social interaction rather than a product acquired by practicing language items, and that “learners learn the target language more effectively when they are naturally exposed to meaningful task-based activities.

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