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In this category of management theory are the works of Max Weber’s practical theory and Henri Fayol’s managerial theory. Weber postulated that western civilization was shifting from thinking, moving action act derived from emotions, and traditional action action derived from past precedent to thinking. He believed that society was changing to seek technically optimal results at the expense of emotional or humanistic content. Weber then developed a set of principles for an ideal bureaucracy as follows:

Fixed and official jurisdictional areas, a firmly prepared hierarchy of fantastic and subordination, management based on written records, thorough and expert training, official activity taking priority over other actions and that management of a given association follows stable, knowable rules. The establishment was envisioned as a large machine for attaining its goals in the most efficient manner possible. However, Weber was cautious of bureaucracy when he observed that the more fully realize, the more bureaucracy depersonalizes itself, the more completely it succeeds in achieving the exclusion of love, hatred, and every purely personal, especially irrational and limitless, feeling from execution of official tasks. Hence, Weber predicted a completely impersonal organization with little human level interaction between its members.


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