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新西兰惠灵顿论文代写:托马斯·霍布斯

根据托马斯·霍布斯的观点,在社会契约之前,人所处的自然状态是“每个人对每个人的战争”,[[6]]是一种自相残杀的斗争,在这种斗争中,人的生活是“孤独的、贫穷的、肮脏的、粗野的和短暂的”。霍布斯认为,自我保护是自然法的重要一课,法律和政府将成为促进秩序和个人安全的必要手段。每一个公民要保住自己的生命,就必须绝对无条件地服从法律。如果把霍布斯的政治理论分为两部分,最好理解:他的人类动机理论,心理利己主义,和他的社会契约理论。这一评估的方向将完全转向霍布斯的社会契约理论。社会契约被霍布斯用来为专制主义辩护,因此被用来为专制政府辩护。霍布斯自己的目标是排除民间叛乱的合法性,从而消除内战的可能性,他认为内战是最大的罪恶。霍布斯告诉我们,我们应该从”臣服于自己权力的人的意图中推断出政治义务的特征,而这种意图在他臣服于权力的最后才会被理解”利用社会契约构建自然权利学说在约翰·洛克的著作中得到了最充分的阐述。在洛克看来,在社会契约之前的自然状态并不是霍布斯所设想的那种残酷恐怖,而是一个黄金时代,一个堕落之前的伊甸园。

新西兰惠灵顿论文代写:托马斯·霍布斯

According to Thomas Hobbes, the state of nature in which man lived before the social contract was “a war of every Man against every Man,”[ [6] ] a condition of internecine strife in which the life of man was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”[ [7] ] Thomas Hobbes believed that self-preservation was the great lesson of natural law and that law and government would become necessary as a means of promoting order and personal security. “For each citizen to preserve his own life, he must give absolute and unconditional obedience to the law.” Hobbes’ political theory is best understood if separate in two parts: his theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Egoism, and his theory of the Social Contract. The direction of this assessment will look exclusively to Hobbe’s theory of Social Contract. The social contract is used by Hobbes in defense of absolutism and is thus used to justify authoritarian government. Hobbe’s own goal was to rule out the legitimacy of civil rebellion and thus to eliminate the possibility of civil war, which he regarded as the greatest of evils. Hobbes informs us that we should infer the characteristics of political obligation from “the intention of him that submitteth himself to his power, which is to be understood by the end for which he so submitteth. The use of a social contract to construct a natural rights doctrine is articulated most fully in the writings of John Locke.[ [9] ] To Locke the state of nature that preceded the social contract was not, as conceived by Hobbes, one of brutal horror, but rather a golden age, an Eden before the Fall.

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