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新西兰教育学作业代写:破坏性行为

然而,尽管老师尽了最大的努力,很有可能一些孩子仍然会在某些场合表现出破坏性行为。在这种情况下,根据行为主义,处理行为的后果是很重要的,因为在这种情况下,不受欢迎的行为可能被学习者激起的反应所强化。例如,孩子可能表现不好,以获得老师的注意,因为,对一些孩子来说,任何注意,甚至负面的,比没有注意要好。每次老师做出反应,他们都在强化孩子的破坏性行为。另一种情况是,孩子可能表现不好是为了获得同伴的反应,如果获得了这种反应,这种行为就会得到强化。因此,行为主义提倡教授学习者新的行为习惯,然后强化这种良好的行为。同样重要的是,不应加强不良行为。因此,加强是这一阶段的关键方面;然而,应该注意的是,根据行为主义,惩罚和制裁并不是强化计划的一部分。相反,应该使用积极强化,因为有人认为愉快的经历更有可能帮助学习者在特定刺激和对该刺激的适当反应之间建立所需的联系。正向强化可以在三种情况下给出当学习者选择一种偏好行为时,可以给出奖励,这被称为选择性反应的差异强化;当学习者选择不去做不受欢迎的行为时,就会得到奖励,这被称为对遗漏反应的差别强化;最后,当学习者表现出较低频率的不想要的行为时,就会得到奖励,这被称为低反应率的差异强化。破坏性和不良行为应尽可能被忽视,以免强化这种行为。

新西兰教育学作业代写:破坏性行为

However, despite the teacher’s best efforts, it is highly likely that some children may still display disruptive behaviour on occasions. In this case, according to behaviourism, it is important to address the consequences of the behaviour as it may be the case that the undesirable behaviour is being reinforced by the reaction the learner provokes. For example, the child may behave badly in order to gain the teacher’s attention as, for some children, any attention, even negative, is better than no attention. Every time the teacher reacts, they are reinforcing the child’s disruptive behaviour. Alternatively, the child may be behaving badly in order to secure a reaction from their peers, and again, if this reaction is gained, the behaviour is being reinforced (Wray, 2010). Therefore, behaviourism advocates teaching learners new repertoires of behaviour and then reinforcing this good behaviour. Equally important, the undesirable behaviour should not be reinforced. Thus, reinforcement is the key aspect of this stage; however, it should be noted that, according to behaviourism, punishments and sanctions are not a part of the reinforcement schedule (Gulliford and Miller, 2015). Instead, positive reinforcement should be used as it is argued that pleasant experiences are more likely to help learners make the desired connections between specific stimuli and the appropriate response to that stimuli (Wray, 2010). Positive reinforcement can be given in three instances (LaVigna, 2000): a reward can be given when a learner chooses a preferred behaviour, known as differential reinforcement of an alternative response; a reward can be given when the learner chooses not to commit the undesirable behaviour, known as a differential reinforcement of the omission of a response; finally, a reward can be given when the learner displays a lower frequency of unwanted behaviour, known as a differential reinforcement of lower rates of responding. Disruptive and undesirable behaviour should be ignored as much as possible so as not to reinforce the behaviour .

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