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新西兰经济学作业代写:市场为导向的经济方式

尽管如此,Bayliss(2002)认为这些国际金融机构的政策仍然坚定地以新自由主义为导向,优先考虑以市场为导向的经济方式。以贫困为中心的新方案的特点与以前的结构调整方案惊人地相似。这些新自由主义政策背后的动机是相信,追求宏观经济效率目标将伴随减贫。Cook和Uchida(2001)认为,与国际贷款机构的观点相反,私有化对贫困的影响还有待实证研究。Birdsall和Nellis(2003)也挑战了国际发展融资机构的理论基础,他们认为私有化的首要目标是确保效率的提高。任何对上述私有化所带来的分配和贫困影响的考虑,都只能在使私有化在政治上更受欢迎的背景下进行。他们认为,分配和贫困问题是通过政府的财政行动,如支出和税收,以及监管来具体解决的。在私有化过程中,分配效应涉及不同收入群体或家庭的福利影响。这些群体将通过他们所面临的价格水平、获得服务的途径以及他们的收入流受到影响,这些都是受私有化影响的变量。

新西兰经济学作业代写:市场为导向的经济方式

Notwithstanding, Bayliss (2002) argues that the policies of these international financial agencies remain staunchly neo-liberal in their orientation, prioritizing a market-oriented economic approach. The characteristics of the new poverty-centric programs remained strikingly similar to the previous structural adjustment ones. The motivation behind these neo-liberal policies was the belief that the pursuit of macroeconomic efficiency goals will see a concomitant reduction in poverty.Cook and Uchida (2001) Argue that, contrary to the international lending agencies’ belief, the impact of Privatisation on poverty is yet to be established empirically.Birdsall and Nellis (2003) also challenge the rationale of international development financing institutions, and opine that the overarching goal of Privatisation is to secure efficiency gains. Any consideration of the distributional and poverty impacts of said Privatisation are addressed only in the context of making Privatisation more politically palatable. They argue that distributional and poverty issues are addressed specifically through fiscal actions of government, such as spending and taxation, as well as regulation.In Privatisation, distributional effects pertain to the welfare impacts on different income groups or households. These groups would be affected through the price levels they face, access to services, and their income streams, all variables affected by Privatisation.

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