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新西兰历史学代写:纸张的改变

在十四世纪中叶开始意味着几个顾客能够或愿意委员会手稿的慷慨的比例,和一些造纸,像书法家和其他艺术家,可能从伊朗和伊拉克等知识中心开罗和大马士革,在那里他们把人才工作准备手稿的马穆鲁克阿米尔。然而,在14世纪末和15世纪,造纸术,以及所有其他的书的艺术,再次改变了由帖木儿(r. 771-807/1370-1405)和他的继任者的赞助。帖木儿为他在撒马尔罕新建的公教清真寺可能委托制作了中世纪伊朗和中亚地区最大的《古兰经》手稿;他的孙子Uluḡ乞讨(r。850 – 53/1447 – 49)委托一块大石头讲台,测量超过两米平方,那么高,这个庞大的手稿。从幸存的页面和片段,每个页面最初测量2.2×1.55米,或8倍full-baḡdādi大小。纸张的尺寸要求纸张比平时更重更结实,这样当树叶翻动时就不会撕裂。法官从幸存的页面,只有七行文本页面的一边,一个完整的Qorʾ手稿将需要大约1600叶,约2700平方米的纸。纸张背面没有文字,异常粗糙,再加上厚度异常,这表明造纸者一定是采用了更古老的方法,把纸浆舀到浅水池中的漂浮模具中(James, 1995,第18-25页;Soudavar,页59 – 64;布莱尔和开花)。近两个世纪之后,帖木儿的猛犸Qorʾ沙法维王朝的手稿被认为记录Qāżi Aḥmad的书法家ʿOmar-e Aqṭaʿ(“Umar截肢者”),用左手写。根据这个故事,在苏丹拒绝了书法家?小Qor副本?,他随后准备了一个巨大的一个苏丹的回报他?以极大的荣誉,标志着尊重和无尽的好处?(问? ?我?疯了,tr, p . 64)。然而,任何一位古代书法家都不可能主动发起这样一项计划,而且这项计划的规模之大表明,它从一开始就一定是一个皇家委员会。

新西兰历史学代写:纸张的改变

In mid-14th century meant that few patrons were able or willing to commission manuscripts of such generous proportions, and some papermakers, like calligraphers and other artists, probably migrated from Iran and Iraq to such intellectual centers as Cairo and Damascus, where they put their talents to work preparing manuscripts for the Mamluk amirs. Nevertheless, in the late 14th and 15th centuries, papermaking, as well as all the other arts of the book, was again transformed by the patronage of Timur (r. 771-807/1370-1405) and his successors. For his new congregational mosque in Samarqand, Timur probably commissioned the largest Koran manuscript produced in medieval Iran and Central Asia; his grandson Uluḡ Beg (r. 850-53/1447-49) commissioned a great stone lectern, measuring more than two meters square and nearly as high, to hold this gargantuan manuscript . Judging from the surviving pages and fragments, each page originally measured 2.2×1.55 meters, or eight times larger than the full-baḡdādi size. The size of the sheets required that the paper be heavier and stronger than usual, so that it would not tear when the leaves were turned. To judge from the surviving pages, which have seven lines of text on only one side of the page, a complete Qorʾan manuscript would have required some 1600 leaves, or about 2700 square meters of paper. The absence of text on the back of the sheets, which are unusually rough, combined with their unusual thickness, indicates that the papermakers must have resorted to the older process of ladling the pulp into floating molds that rested in shallow basins of water (James, 1995, pp. 18-25; Soudavar, pp. 59-64; Blair and Bloom). Nearly two centuries later, Timur’s mammoth Qorʾan manuscript was attributed by the Safavid chronicler Qāżi Aḥmad to the calligrapher ʿOmar-e Aqṭaʿ (“‘Umar the amputee”), who wrote with his left hand. According to the story, after the sultan had rejected the calligrapher’s tiny copy of the Qorʾan, he then prepared an enormous one for which the sultan rewarded him “with great honors, marks of respect and endless favors” (Qāżi Aḥmad, tr., p. 64). It is, however, inconceivable that any Timurid calligrapher could have initiated such a project on his own initiative, and the sheer magnitude of the project indicates that it must have been a royal commission from the start.

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