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The third law of nature defines justice as a practice to follow and respect the covenants of social contracts in order to contribute to the preservation of individuals, which also has notable impacts over the development of virtues. Hobbes argues that in order to facilitate and guarantee the transferring of rights between people, it is necessitated for “men perform their covenants made” (Hobbes). In this aspect, Hobbes views justice as a moral practice to obey the covenants of social contracts in order to contribute to peace and self-preservation. This vision of justice might challenge people to make virtuous dispositions, because it is in the interests of individuals. However, this practice also does not necessarily mean that individuals act virtuously out of self-interest, because they might be under great pressures to make virtuous actions. Furthermore, it deserves to be noticed that Hobbes argue that materialism is the one of the key contents of self-interest, because individuals are inherently concerned with satisfying their appetites and avoiding aversions. Through observing the motions of the mechanic universe, Hobbes constructs his theory about human nature, revealing that human nature is concentrated on appetites and aversions. In this regard, Hobbes suggests that human beings are inherently driven by the pursuits of various forms of materialism, such as pride and honor. As a result, virtues might not be in the interest of human beings, because making virtuous actions necessitate individuals to make personal sacrifice for the benefits of others and other things. Thus, Hobbes believes that the pursuit of self-interest does not necessarily lead to virtuous actions. Instead, virtuous actions are consciously scrutinized and even avoided by many people in the state of nature. Thus, it can be seen that Hobbes does not hold that people will act virtuously because of self-interest.


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