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新西兰留学生论文代写:实证主义

让我们首先考虑什么是实证主义。广义上来说,实证主义是形而上学的拒绝(我把它你查找这个词如果你不熟悉它)。位置,认为知识的目的是描述我们经验的现象。科学的目的是简单地坚持我们可以观察和测量。的知识之外,实证主义将举行,是不可能的。当我想到实证主义(以及相关的逻辑实证主义哲学)我想在20世纪中叶的行为学家心理学。这是传说中的“老鼠跑者”认为,心理学研究可以直接观察和测量。既然我们不能直接观察到的情感,思想,等等。(尽管我们可以测量的一些物理和生理的选择),这些都是不合法的科学心理学的主题。斯金纳认为,心理学只需要把精力集中在积极和消极强化物的行为来预测人们之间,一切的行为(如人想什么)是无关紧要的,因为它不能被测量。在实证主义的世界观,科学被认为是真理的方式,充分理解世界,这样我们可以预测和控制它。世界和宇宙是决定性的,他们由因果定律,我们可以辨别,如果我们应用科学方法的独特方法。科学在很大程度上是一种机械的或机械的事情。我们用演绎推理假设理论,我们可以测试。基于我们的研究结果,我们可以知道我们的理论不符合事实,所以我们需要修改我们的理论来更好地预测现实。实证主义认为在经验主义的观点观察和测量是科学事业的核心。科学方法是实验的关键方法,试图通过直接操作和观察辨别自然法则。

新西兰留学生论文代写:实证主义

Let’s begin by considering what positivism is. In its broadest sense, positivism is a rejection of metaphysics (I leave it you to look up that term if you’re not familiar with it). It is a position that holds that the goal of knowledge is simply to describe the phenomena that we experience. The purpose of science is simply to stick to what we can observe and measure. Knowledge of anything beyond that, a positivist would hold, is impossible. When I think of positivism (and the related philosophy of logical positivism) I think of the behaviorists in mid-20th Century psychology. These were the mythical ‘rat runners’ who believed that psychology could only study what could be directly observed and measured. Since we can’t directly observe emotions, thoughts, etc. (although we may be able to measure some of the physical and physiological accompaniments), these were not legitimate topics for a scientific psychology. B.F. Skinner argued that psychology needed to concentrate only on the positive and negative reinforcers of behavior in order to predict how people will behave — everything else in between (like what the person is thinking) is irrelevant because it can’t be measured.In a positivist view of the world, science was seen as the way to get at truth, to understand the world well enough so that we might predict and control it. The world and the universe were deterministic — they operated by laws of cause and effect that we could discern if we applied the unique approach of the scientific method. Science was largely a mechanistic or mechanical affair. We use deductive reasoning to postulate theories that we can test. Based on the results of our studies, we may learn that our theory doesn’t fit the facts well and so we need to revise our theory to better predict reality. The positivist believed in empiricism — the idea that observation and measurement was the core of the scientific endeavor. The key approach of the scientific method is the experiment, the attempt to discern natural laws through direct manipulation and observation.

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