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新西兰留学生作业代写:理性和经验观察

洛克和休谟之间的这种差异与他们对理性和经验观察的观点有关。两位哲学家都是经验主义者,他们认为我们是通过感觉获得知识的。然而洛克也相信理性法则,某些事物可以通过理性的运用被理解。然而休谟通常被认为是反理性的。他认为,理性仅仅是基于我们的激情的行为处方,而激情又源自我们的道德。因此,理性可以规定我们应该如何行动,我们应该使用什么手段,但它不能规定我们通过这些行动追求的目标。这与洛克有着根本的不同,洛克的社会和政府理论是建立在自然和上帝客观规律的基础上的。再一次,这种根本的区别体现在艺术的精致上。洛克主张的理性法则规定了社会和政府的正确行为,休谟则认为,除非通过实践提炼出的理性,否则不可能制定出最好的法律。换句话说,政府艺术的知识不是来自客观的、外在的自然法则或理性,也不是来自上帝,而是来自人的主观经验。因此,对洛克来说,最好的政府来自于理性法则,其目的是保护每个人的生命、自由和财产的自然权利。对洛克来说,自由是一种自然权利,政府存在是为了保护它。在休谟看来,一个保护自由的政府是建立在一个经过适当培育和完善的社会之外的,因此人们获得了财富,因此有权力和动机通过良好的法律保护自己免受暴政的侵害。

新西兰留学生作业代写:理性和经验观察

This difference between Locke and Hume relates to their views on reason and empirical observation. Both philosophers were empiricists, arguing that we arrive at knowledge through sensation. Yet Locke also believes in a law of reason and that certain things can be understood through the exercise of reason. Hume, however, is generally considered anti-rational. He argues that reason consists simply in the prescription of actions based on our passions which are in turn derived from our morals. Thus, reason can prescribe how we should act, what means we should employ, but it cannot prescribe the ends we pursue through those actions. This is fundamentally different from Locke, whose theory of society and government is grounded in the objective laws of nature and God.Again, this fundamental difference is reflected in Of Refinement in the Arts. Whereas Locke argues for a law of reason that prescribes the correct actions of a society and government, Hume argues that the best laws cannot be arrived at except through reason that has been refined by exercise. In other words, knowledge of the art of government does not come from an objective, external law of nature or reason, or from God, but from subjective human experience. Thus, for Locke, the best government is derived from the law of reason and has as its purpose the protection of everyone’s natural right to life, liberty, and property. Liberty, to Locke, is a natural right that government exists to protect. For Hume, a government that protects liberty is established from a society that is properly cultivated and refined, so that the people have acquired wealth and therefore has the power and the incentive to protect themselves from tyranny through good laws. Li

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