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此后,围绕伊拉克战争还有许多法律问题。关于功利主义,很明显,非法的东西不应该是为了“最广大人民的最大利益”,就像联合国乃至英国等支持国的代表都公开反对的那样。联合国秘书长科菲?安南(Kofi Annan)在谈到入侵时说,“我已经表明,这与《联合国宪章》(UN Charter)不符。”从我们的观点来看,从《宪章》的观点来看,这是非法的。[12]中国英语学习网此外,英国前大法官宾厄姆勋爵表示,这场战争严重违反了国际法。他接着指责英国和美国表现得像一个“世界义务警员”,这显然不是你会联想到一场道德战争的标签。宾厄姆说:“布什政府的一些高级官员玩世不恭地缺乏对国际合法性的关注,这尤其让法治的支持者感到不安。如果功利主义是由结果决定的行为的道德意义,那么入侵伊拉克除了推翻侯赛因在6年多的时间里似乎没有取得什么成就,而且无论如何都是非法的,那么伊拉克战争似乎完全不道德。有很多关于功利主义的文献,还有一篇论文是为了证明功利主义作为道德前提的价值,反驳人们对它的普遍误解是约翰•斯图亚特•密尔的《功利主义》稍后我们会更详细地讨论。密尔将功利主义定义为一种理论,它源自于这样一种信念:“当行为倾向于促进快乐时,它是成比例的正确的;当行为倾向于产生相反的快乐时,它是错误的。”他把快乐分为快乐和没有痛苦,并继续认为快乐可以在质量和数量上波动。此外,密尔认为,根植于你的“高级官能”中的快乐应该优于更低级的快乐。此外,有人认为,当考虑一个人的幸福时,应该考虑目标的实现,如德行的生活,以及其他的野心和目的的实现.


Following on from this, there are also many legal questions surrounding the war in Iraq. With regard to utilitarianism, it is clear that something illegal should not be for the ‘greatest good for the greatest number of people’ as the UN and even representatives of supporting countries such as the UK have spoken out against it. Kofi Annan, the Secretary General of the United Nations, said of the invasion, “I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN Charter. From our point of view, from the Charter point of view, it was illegal.” [12] Furthermore, Lord Bingham, the former British Law Lord said the war was in serious breach of international law. He went on to accuse Britain and the US of acting like a “world vigilante”, obviously not a tag you’d associate with an ethical war. Bingham said: “Particularly disturbing to proponents of the rule of law is the cynical lack of concern for international legality among some top officials in the Bush administration.” [13] If utilitarianism is the moral significance of an action being decided by its outcome, then an invasion that besides removing Hussein doesn’t seem to have achieved much in over 6 years, and is arguably illegal anyway, then the war in Iraq seems completely unethical.There is lots of literature that covers the topic of utilitarianism and one essay written to offer evidence of its worth as a moral premise, and to retort to common misapprehensions about it is ‘Utilitarianism’ by John Stuart Mill, who will we look at in more detail later. Utilitarianism is defined by Mill as a theory originating from the belief that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” He classifies happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain and continues to argue that pleasure can fluctuate in quality and quantity. Furthermore Mill considers that pleasures that are embedded in your ‘higher faculties’ should be superior to more base pleasures. Additionally, it is argued that accomplishment of goals such as virtuous living, and other achievement of ambitions and purposes should be considered when thinking about one’s happiness


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