一般来说，斯密认为劳动分工有三个主要后果。首先，史密斯认为劳动分工将使工人工作更有效率和更有成效，因为劳动专业化可以导致生产率的提高。正如史密斯所指出的，劳动分工使工人通过练习相关技能来提高完成专门工作的熟练程度，这“必然大大提高了工人的熟练程度”(G. ed, p. 18)。通过劳动分工，劳动者完成特定任务的专业化程度不断提高。与此同时，劳动分工也将有助于提高工人在市场上的自主权和权力，因为工人能够在市场上找到足够的机会。在这方面，劳动分工增加了工人的就业机会，他们将有更多的自由来决定他们的工作申请。此外，劳动分工对社会财富的发展也有积极的影响。一方面，史密斯认为，劳动分工将导致社会财富的增加，因为丰富的产品将由具有专业技能的工人生产。在这种情况下，斯密注意到，由于资本主义经济中劳动分工所实现的充分可得的产品，节俭的农民与非洲的国王相比，将显得明显更富有(G. ed，第24页)。另一方面，斯密认为，劳动分工将在促进社会财富积累方面发挥重要作用，因为它会导致规模经济的出现，通过增加生产中工人的数量来实现生产率的最大化。
Generally, Smith believes that the division of labor can have three major consequences. First, Smith thinks that the division of labor will enable workers to work more efficiently and productively, because the specialization of labor can lead to increased productivity. As noted by Smith, the division of labor allows workers to develop increased dexterities in completing specialized work through practicing related skills, which “necessarily increased very much the dexterity of the workman” (G. ed, p. 18). Workers will become increasingly professionalized in completing specific tasks through the division of labor. Meanwhile, the division of labor will also contribute to the development of increased autonomy and power of workers in the market, because workers are able to find adequate opportunities in the market. In this regard, the division of labor results in increased job opportunities for workers, who will have more freedom to decide their job applications. Furthermore, the division of labor also has positive implications for the development of social wealth. On the one hand, Smith believes that the division of labor will lead to increased social opulence, because abundant products will be produced by workers with specialized skills. In this case, Smith observes that frugal peasants will appear notably better off compared to kings in Africa because of adequately available products realized by the division of labor in the capitalist economy (G. ed, p. 24). One the other hand, Smith thinks that the division of labor will play a significant role in facilitating the accumulation of social wealth, because it results in the emergence of scale economy that can maximize productivity through increasing the number of workers in the production.