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皮亚杰的阶段发展理论提供了指导,涵盖的复杂性,可以预期在儿童的思维过程在其发展的大致阶段。皮亚杰理论可以指导教师的分化为学生的能力,而所需的脚手架和支持以促进认知发展区之间的运动。皮亚杰的发展阶段理论主要影响小学的教学实践,鉴于这一理论的时代性,认知能力随着年龄的增长而产生的赏识和意识在教学中是非常重要的。皮亚杰(2001)发展阶段的正确性一直受到批评,因为它不清楚和放肆地假设孩子将通过特定阶段的阶段,但是,作为一个发展过程中,这一理论是有用的教学实践 教师的另一个含义是课堂提问。让学生建构自己的知识和理解,问题需要高阶和探索Moursund(2003),与华分类一致(1956),包括命令字如“评价”和合成的。此外,问题需要是无止境的,并允许学生发展自己的理解,虽然回答的问题,而不是简单的封闭式的问题,答案已经预先确定。学生需要有机会逐步学习过程并建构自己的答案。可以促进教师使用问题,鼓励学生逐步构建自己的理解,如评价、综合和分析问题。


On the other hand, teachers come into the classroom with their own construction and conceptions of subject content, and according to Patrick (1988), are not ‘neutral’. Therefore, a teacher’s understanding can colour the students understanding, and together, Patrick (1998) and Marton and Booth (1997) suggested that some teachers ‘moulded’ the students’ construction of a concept to align with their concept interpretation. Einsworth and Collins (2002) conclude that the form of understanding impressed onto students is largely dependent on the teacher’s personal interpretation of the subject content. Therefore, although the constructivist theory assumes that the construction of understanding is the product of the learner’s interpretation exclusively, the constructivist theory does not account for the interplay between teachers’ and learners’ comprehension.To accommodate these pre-requisites of learning, the individual’s knowledge needs to be continually assessed. As a regular classroom practice, formative assessment could be used as a regular approach to assess existing and new understanding, before moving to the next lesson. Formative assessment is a regular, informal mode of assessment, allowing teachers to monitor students’ progress, gain an appreciation of what has been learnt and adapt their teaching practices to optimise further learning (Black and Wiliam, 1998). Accordingly, given that learning is an active and evolving processes, formative assessment can be used by teachers to assess, monitor, challenge unclear perspectives and adapt classroom practices to accommodate the constructivist principles of learning. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that constructivist approaches to learning favour the use of formative assessment and may prompt its use in the classrooms, which Atkin et al, (2001) reports as being very valuable.


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