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根据一些人的说法,文艺复兴是一种新的东西。竞争者认为,它从根本上追求中世纪模式的修正——这一观点与意大利文艺复兴与其他地方文艺复兴的变化相混淆。意大利文艺复兴始于1300年左右。与这一运动有关的第一个和最重要的名字是但丁·阿里格里,他是宗教寓言的作者,一位虔诚的天主教徒,他使用了学术哲学,经常反对意大利教会的政治体制。人们可以很容易地从他的神曲中感受到,他基本上属于中世纪,但作为不同的最崇高的知识分子,他主要以意大利语而不是拉丁语写作。在他之后是十四世纪的乔瓦尼·薄伽丘的名字,他写了极其轰动的《十日谈》,也是用意大利语写的。英国的戈夫里·乔叟(Goeffrey Chaucer)也写了《坎特伯雷故事集》(the Canterbury Tales),很有可能像《十日谈》(Decameron)一样,是对中世纪人们行为的真实描述。但是但丁的经典继承者是弗朗西斯科·彼特拉克,他在意大利语和拉丁语中都写了世俗的主题,尽管他很虔诚,经常为他的世俗作品偏离了人类唯一正确的目标,那就是拯救(斯登斯,1977)。但丁,薄伽丘,和彼特拉克非常投入到发掘和保护古典作品中。另一位意大利学者Pico della Mirandola有力地阐述了人文主义价值观


The Renaissance, as the name suggests, was something new, according to some. The contenders hold that it fundamentally pursued medieval models revising them — an idea that gets more confused with the added fact that the Renaissance in Italy was at variance from the Renaissance in other places. The Renaissance started in Italy around 1300. The first and foremost name associated with this movement was Dante Alighieri, the deeply religious author of spiritual parables, a dedicated catholic who used academic philosophy and was often adverse to the political set-up of the Italian church. One can easily sense from his Divine Comedy that he basically belonged to the Middle Ages except that, as distinct most lofty intellectuals, he wrote mostly in Italian rather than Latin. After him comes the named of Giovanni Boccaccio in the fourteenth century, who wrote the extremely sensational Decameron, written in Italian too. Goeffrey Chaucer in England also wrote the lewd The Canterbury Tales, most likely, which like the Decameron, was a true account of how medieval people acted. But the classic successor of Dante was Francesco Petrarch who wrote both in Italian and Latin about secular themes, even though he was deeply religious often bothering that his secular writings were a diversion from man’s only right goal, that is, deliverance (Stearns, 1977). Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch put very much in to the unearthing and safeguarding of classical works. Humanist values were powerfully articulate by another Italian scholar, Pico della Mirandola


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