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需求和欲望是人类的指导动机。如果我们的需要没有得到满足,那么我们处于冲突状态,不能导致和平的生活方式,另一方面欲望总是无限的,因此他们也会导致某种形式的暴力(如侵略),如果没有实现。一位著名心理学家Abraham Maslow(1968)确定了人类的需要,并指出人类的需要在层次结构中移动(图1)。如果一个层面的需要不满足,那么其他层次的需要就无法得到满足,实现这些需要是建立和平的必要条件,因为这些需求的不平衡会导致人类的冲突和攻击,这是暴力的首要原因。在印度,许多人仍然无法满足他们的基本需要和犯罪,暴力,侵略,冲突,萧条,自杀是它的结果。因此,在这种情况下,和平教育对于我们所有人来说都是非常重要的,所以冲突和问题可以和平解决,我们是社会动物,不是自给自足的岛屿。正如Gandhi ji所指出的那样,自力更生绝不能误认为自给自足。我们需要彼此。相互依存是自力更生的人的脸。我们如何回应他人,是我们性格中的一个关键因素。如果是这样的话,教育需要培养学生的价值观和技能,使他们能够与他人和睦相处。Jacques Delors(1996)指出“和睦相处”作为教育的四大支柱。当前的教育实践不足以促进和谐生活艺术的和谐。培养学生的竞争精神和训练,从一开始,涉及到事实和对象。学习发生在与关系和现实世界隔绝的背景下。这种学习包括,查尔斯·狄更斯(2003)在困难时期哀叹“事实,事实,只有事实”。


Needs and desires are the guiding motivation for humans. If our needs are not fulfilled, then we are in a state of conflict which cannot lead to peaceful ways of living and on the other hand desires are always limitless and hence they also lead to some form of violence (like aggression) if unfulfilled. A famous psychologist Abraham Maslow (1968) identified human needs and stated that human needs move in a hierarchy (fig. 1). If the needs of one layer are not satisfied then the needs of other layer cannot be fulfilled and fulfillment of these needs is necessary for establishing peace because imbalance in these needs can cause conflicts and aggression in humans and these are the foremost reasons of violence. In India, many people are still not able to fulfill even their basic needs and crime, violence, aggression, conflicts, depressions; suicides are result of it. So, in this scenario, education for peace becomes really important for all of us so that conflicts and problems can be resolved in peaceful ways.We are social animals, not self-contained islands. Self-reliance, as Gandhi ji pointed out, must not be mistaken for self-sufficiency. We need each other. Interdependence is the human face of self-reliance. How we respond and relate to others is a crucial element in our personalities. If this be the case, education needs to nurture in students the values and skills that enable them to live in harmony with others. Jacques Delors (1996) identifies “living together in harmony” as one of the four pillars of education. The current practice of education is inadequate to promote the art of living together in harmony. Students are nurtured in a spirit of competition and trained, from the beginning, to relate to facts and objects. Learning takes place in a background isolated from the world of relationships and realities. Learning of this kind comprises, as Charles Dickens (2003) lamented in Hard Times, “facts, facts and nothing but facts”.


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