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新西兰商科论文代写:CRM的历史

客户关系管理可以追溯到20世纪80年代,当时美国联合航空公司首次开设客户关系管理课程。CRM的根本发展可以追溯到1979年美国国家航空航天局举办的一个研讨会。1979年的会议是船员资源管理史上的一个重要转折点,因为它为探索与人为错误相关的事故数量的增加提供了基础(航空知识,2010)。这次会议被认为是美国国家航空航天局研究的成果,该研究旨在探索航空运输事故增加的原因。在会议上公布的NASA研究报告提到了近期事故中的人为失误,列举了一些因素,包括沟通失败、决策延迟或错误、领导能力等。正是在这次会议期间,驾驶舱资源管理(CRM)这个标签被用来指通过使用飞行甲板上的人力资源来努力减少飞行员在飞行过程中的错误的培训过程(Helmreich, Merrit and Wilhelm, 1999)。这次会议汇集了美国的主要航空公司,出席会议的一些航空公司承诺实施培训计划,确保飞行员在飞行过程中得到如何利用人力资源的良好培训。从那次会议开始,许多航空公司实施了旨在增加飞行甲板上机组人员资源的计划。联合航空公司成为第一家实施CRM计划的航空公司,该计划培训所有飞行员如何在飞行甲板上使用人力资源(Helmreich et al., 1999)。如今几乎每家航空公司都在运行CRM程序。此外,客户关系管理从那时起已经演变为以所有船员为目标,“驾驶舱”一词被“船员”一词取代,以反映目标。

新西兰商科论文代写:CRM的历史

CRM can be traced to1980s when United Airlines first started CRM classes. The root development of CRM can be traced back to a workshop that was held in 1979 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The 1979 conference was an important turning point in the history of Crew Resource Management as it provided the base for exploration of the increased number of accidents that were related to human error (Aviation Knowledge, 2010). The conference was considered an outgrowth of NASA research which was aimed at exploring the cause of increased air transport accidents. The NASA research, which was presented in the conference, made reference to human error in the recent accidents citing a number of factors including failure for communication, delayed or wrong decision making, leadership, and others. It was during this meeting that the label Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) came to be used to refer to the process of training crews in efforts to reduce human pilot error during flight through use of human resources on the flight deck (Helmreich, Merrit and Wilhelm, 1999). This conference had brought together major carriers in United States and a number of carriers present became committed to put in place training programs that would ensure pilots were well trained on how to harness human resources during flight.From that conference, many airlines put in place programs that were aimed at enhancing crew resources on the flight deck. United Airlines became one of the first airlines that put in place a CRM program that trained all its pilots on how to use human resources on the flight deck (Helmreich et al., 1999). Almost every airline today has a CRM program running. In addition, CRM has since then evolved to target all crews and the word ‘cockpit’ was replaced with the word ‘crew’ to reflect the target.

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