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新西兰社会学代写:种族和性别

除了人们熟悉的种族和性别之外,还有许多形式的歧视,基于种族、宗教、性取向、年龄、残疾和性骚扰。上述定性指的是一种直接歧视的情况,在这种情况下,一个人由于被禁止的理由而受到直接的不利待遇。间接歧视,是指明显中立的规定或做法在其效果上具有歧视性的情况。除了直接和间接歧视之外,我们还可以使用制度歧视这个术语。制度性歧视是指公司、机构甚至整个社会的行为或程序,其结构往往会产生歧视性影响,例如在南非的种族隔离制度中。至于根本原因,歧视似乎没有明确接受任何因果理论,但歧视往往会引起不利的连锁反应。例如,应该指出,歧视和社会距离之间也有联系,因为从心理上来说,歧视不熟悉的人往往更容易。

新西兰社会学代写:种族和性别

There are many forms of discrimination, besides the more familiar forms like race and gender, based on ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, age , disability or handicap, and sexual harassment. The mentioned characterization refers to a situation of the direct discrimination, in which a person is treated adversely directly on the basis of a prohibited ground. Indirect discrimination, refers to a situation in which an apparently neutral provision or practice is discriminatory in its effects. Besides direct and indirect discrimination, we may use the term institutional discrimination. Institutional discrimination refers to the practices or procedures in a company or an institution, or even the society as a whole, which are structured in a way that tends to produce discriminatory effects, for example in the Apartheid regime in South Africa.As to the root cause, discrimination appears to be no clear acceptance of any theory of causation but that discrimination often causes a chain reaction of disadvantages. For instance, it should be noted that there is a connection also between discrimination and social distance, given that it is usually psychologically easier to discriminate against people that one is not familiar with.

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