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新西兰社会学作业代写:实地研究

从迪尔凯姆自己的著作《宗教生活的基本形式》中选取了一个应用功能主义理论的简单例子。在这项工作中,他借鉴了人类学家斯宾塞和吉伦(1899)收集的第一批主要的实地研究,他们研究了澳大利亚的阿伦塔。阿伦塔人也属于一个更大的群体,叫做氏族。每个阿伦塔部落都是由一些人组成的,他们认为自己是一个遥远的共同祖先,也就是说,他们认为自己是亲戚。在罕见但重要的场合,整个氏族(包括许多不同乐队的成员)聚集在一起崇拜图腾。此外,在他们作为乐队成员的日常生活中,每当他们遇到自己的特定图腾时,他们都怀着崇敬之情——将其视为神圣的对象。托尔科特·帕森斯是一位功能主义社会学家,他相信病态的角色,也发现它非常重要。帕森斯认为病态角色理论是一种解释病态者特殊权利和责任的方式。由于那些被诊断出有疾病的人不能总是继续他们的职责,即工作,学校等,社会适应,并允许一个合理的数量偏离正常的人的典型行为。塔尔科特·帕森斯认为,病态角色有四个方面。尽管帕森斯有强烈的信仰,他认为病态的角色是一种异常的形式,因为人们被期望成为社会上有生产力的成员。塔尔科特·帕森斯还说,如果一个病人不能履行其日常职责,那么他的越轨行为就需要得到医学专家的认可,以证明他确实有病,从而使他的疾病合法化。根据帕森斯的观点,病人有权利和义务去履行的四个方面是:第一,病人没有生病的过错,第二,病人可以免除日常的责任。第三,病人必须尽快康复,最后,病人需要寻求并接受适当的治疗。

新西兰社会学作业代写:实地研究

Meanwhile, a simple example of the application of functionalist theory taken from one of Durkheim’s own works, called The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (Durkheim 1976 [1912]). In this work he drew on the first major field studies collected by anthropologists Spencer and Gillen (1899), who studied the Australian Arunta. The Arunta also belong to much larger groups, called clans. Each Arunta clan consists of people who believe themselves to be a distant common ancestor – that is, they consider themselves to be related. On rare but important occasions, the whole of the clan (including members of many different bands) gathers to worship the totem. In addition, during their day-to-day life as band members, whenever they come across their particular totem they treat with reverence – as kind of sacred objects. Talcott Parsons was a functionalist sociologist who believed in the sick role and had also found it very important. Parsons believed the Sick role theory is a way of explaining the particular rights and responsibilities of those who are ill. Since those who are diagnosed with a medical condition cannot always continue with their same duties, i.e. work, school etc. society adapts and allows a reasonable amount of deviation from the typical behavior of a well person.Talcott Parsons believed that there were four aspects of the sick role. Although Parsons had strong beliefs and had saw the sick role as a form of deviance as people are expected to be productive members of society. Talcott Parsons also said if an ill person is not able to carry out their usual duties the deviant behavior needs to be sanctioned by a medical expert to certify that a person is actually ill, therefore legitimatizing their illness.The four aspects according to Parsons the sick person has rights and obligations to fulfil are firstly the sick person is not at fault for being sick, secondly, the sick person is excused from usual (everyday) responsibilities. Thirdly, the sick person must get well as soon as possible and lastly, the sick person needs to seek and submit to appropriate medical care.

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