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我们也认为词汇的分析是非常相关的,因为“命名的选择和措辞决定什么叫什么可以构成一个索赔”(约翰斯通,2002年,第46页)在这方面,我们将考虑引用和隐喻。换句话说,我们将关注每个参与者对其他参与者的引用方式。在特朗普的演讲中,经常会发现暗指朝鲜,而且很多时候都是使用隐喻,比如众所周知的《炮火与怒火》(NBC News, 2017)。在精选的文本中,我们可以发现特朗普将专制政权称为“我们星球的祸害”(特朗普,2017),却没有直接提及朝鲜。然而,他在下面的一行中提到了它作为一个例子。这种策略出现在约翰斯通的《话语分析》一书中,其名称为“预设”,即公众“含蓄地传递信息,让听者去推断信息的含义并做出假设”(约翰斯通,2002,第43页)。同样的策略被用在同样的经文上:“如果正义的多数人不对抗邪恶的少数人,那么邪恶就会胜利。”在这种情况下,他是指这些政权(朝鲜),最终“邪恶”,但更重要的是,他含蓄地提到“公义”一词不仅对自己,考虑到这次演讲是明显在联合国,这可以作为一种吸引参与的国家。


We have also regarded the analysis of vocabulary as something very relevant, as ‘choices about naming and wording deciding what to call something can constitute a claim about it’ (Johnstone, 2002, p. 46) In this regard, we will consider referencing and metaphors. In other words, we will focus in the way each participant refers to the other. It is usual to find implicit referencing to North Korea in Trump’s discourse and many times this is done using metaphors, which are well-known to the public such as the famous ‘fire and fury’ (NBC News, 2017). In the selected texts, we can find that Trump talks about authoritarian regimes as ‘the scourge of our planet’ (Trump, 2017) without mentioning directly North Korea. However, he mentions it a line below as a way of example. This strategy appears in Johnstone’s book Discourse Analysis under the name of “presupposition”, where the public is ‘delivering information implicitly and leaving it to the hearer to deduce meaning and make assumptions’ (Johnstone, 2002, p.43). The same strategy is used the same text: ‘if the righteous many do not confront the wicked few, then evil will triumph’. In this case, he refers to these regimes (and, ultimately, North Korea) as “wicked” but, more importantly, he is implicitly referring with the word “righteous” not only to himself, as taking into account that this speech is pronounced at the United Nations, this serves as an appeal to engage for the rest of countries.


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