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来自伦敦的哲学家杰里米·边沁创立了一种叫做功利主义的道德哲学原则。“功利主义的信条接受道德的基础,实用程序,或者最大幸福原则,认为行为是正确的比例就越快乐,就越错误产生反向的幸福”(Pg。4)。这意味着通过功利主义的角度来看,一个行动或任务必须做更大的利益。更重要的是,“最佳快乐法则”(best joy rule)表明,一种道德活动是一种扩大地球整体效用的活动。可以说,如果一项活动是道德的,它就提高了对这个星球的满意度。这允许活动以深刻的质量定位。如果一项活动实现了一个人的行为,这在伦理上是正确的。尽管事实是,如果另一项活动能使一个以上的人感到高兴,那这项活动在伦理上就更正确了。功利主义认为,当一件事物能够为最多的个体提供最好的有用的衡量标准时,它就是好的或伟大的。这是一个道德标准化的假设,它问的是一个特定的活动是好是坏,是道德的还是不道德的。


Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher from London, created the principles of moral philosophy called utilitarianism. “Utilitarianism is the creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness”(Mill Pg. 4). This means that through a utilitarianism perspective, a deed or task must be done in terms of the greater good. What’s more, the best joy rule expresses that an ethical activity is one that expands the aggregate utility on the planet. As it were, if an activity is moral, it raises the measure of satisfaction on the planet. This permits activities to be positioned by profound quality. In the event that an activity fulfills one individual, it is ethically right. In spite of the fact that if another activity would make more than one individual cheerful, that activity is all the more ethically right. Utilitarianism expresses that something is good or great when it delivers the best measure of useful for the best number of individuals. It’s a hypothesis of standardizing morals that asks whether a particular activity is great or awful, moral or unethical.


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