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在其准确的定义中,多元文化是一个总括性的术语,涉及对美国的非裔美国人、世界各地的妇女以及同性恋和残疾人等其他群体的弱势和经常受到歧视的群体的道德和政治承认。然而,多元文化主义理论家一直强调,一个国家的移民由于其民族或宗教上的差异而构成少数民族。这类群体的一些例子包括大多数西欧国家的穆斯林和一些欧洲国家的少数民族,如加泰罗尼亚人、罗马人和西班牙的巴斯克人。这些都是身份、差异和承认政治,旨在使以前不受尊重的身份恢复价值,并改变先前边缘化的少数群体的代表和交流模式。[3] 这个概念除了政治动机外,还与经济利益有很大关系。布鲁姆(1992)对反种族主义和多元文化主义进行了区分,指出前者涉及“受害和抵抗”,后者涉及“文化生活、文化表达,成就等”(Blum,1992年,第14页)[4]。多元文化主义者所寻求的一些便利措施包括:基于宗教理由豁免某些法律,在大多数人没有帮助的问题上给予特殊待遇,为语言学校和协会提供资金,在政府机构中有特殊的代表名额,承认他们的文化准则和法律制度中的做法,以及某种形式的自治权利。


In its precise definition, multiculturalism is an umbrella term that involves moral and political recognition of disadvantaged and frequently discriminated groups like African Americans in the United States, women worldwide, and other groups like gays, and the disabled. However, multiculturalism theorists have always emphasized on immigrants of a country who make up ethnic or religious minorities because of their differences. Some examples of such groups include Muslims in most Western Europe countries and minority nations in some European countries like the Catalans, Romans and the Basque in Spain.Young (1990) identifies three aspects associated with multiculturalism. These are identity, difference, and recognition politics aimed at bringing back value to formerly disrespected identities and altering patterns of representation and communication that had previously marginalized minority groups. [3] The concept has also a lot to do with economic interests besides political motives. It is a platform used to remedy political and economic injustices that people claim to have suffered because they belong to a minority status.Blum (1992) differentiates antiracism and multiculturalism by stating that the former deals with “victimization and resistance” and the latter deals with “cultural life, cultural expression, achievements, and the like” (Blum, 1992, p. 14) [4] . Some of the accommodations sought by multiculturalists include exemptions from certain laws on religious grounds, special treatment in issues that the majority do unassisted, funding for language schools and associations, special quotas of representation in government bodies, recognition of their cultural codes and practices in the legal system, and some form of self government rights.


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