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新西兰政治学作业代写:腐败活动

这篇文章的关键重点是发展中国家和腐败活动在公共和私人层面的政治领域。很明显,存在着不同形式的政治腐败,它们具有一系列的特征,需要对其进行映射。1990年,阿拉塔斯区分了“交易型”和“敲诈型”腐败。前者是指捐赠人与受赠人之间为了双方的共同利益而达成的一种相互安排,而后者则是一种压力,通常是为了避免给捐赠人或受赠人身边的人带来伤害。可以考虑其他可能有助于形成政治腐败类型的类别:可以在高级别和低级别之间划分差异(“大”腐败和“小”腐败);第一个涉及大量的金钱,它涉及政治决策者,法律和法规被统治者滥用,忽视,或量身定做以适应利益。后者指的是为了朋友而扭曲规则,而后者指的是日常生活中与现行法律、法规和规章的执行有关的腐败,“街道级别的公共行政官员和服务”。在大多数发展中国家,腐败现象普遍存在,并已成为日常生活的一部分;大多数社会都意识到了这一点,有些甚至把它当成了自己文化的一部分。发展中国家更有可能体验到€²状态Capturea€²和€²Kleptoratica€²腐败。“国家俘获”是赫尔曼和考夫曼提出的一种腐败形式,世界银行在2000年采用了这种形式。

新西兰政治学作业代写:腐败活动

The critical emphasis of this essay is on developing countries and corrupt activities in the political sphere at the public and private level. It is clear that there exist different forms of political corruption with a range of characteristics, which need to be mapped. Alatas in 1990 distinguished between ‘transactive’ and ‘extortive’ corruption. The former refers to a mutual arrangement concerning a donor and a recipient to the mutual advantage of both parties, whereas the latter entails a sort of pressure, usually to avoid the harm being imposed on the donor or those close to him/her.It is possible to consider other categories which could contribute to a typology of political corruption: differences could be drawn between high and low level (‘grand’ corruption versus ‘petty’); the first one involves a substantial amount of money, it involves political decision-makers, the laws and regulations are abused by the rulers, ignored, or tailored to fit interests. Whereas the latter refers to the bending of rules in favour of friends, it’s the everyday corruption in connection with the implementation of existing laws, rules and regulations at the “street level with minor public administration officials and services. In most developing countries, corruption has been widespread and has become part of everyday life; most societies are aware of it and some even make it look like part of their culture. Developing countries are more likely to experience ′State Capture′ and ′Kleptoratic′ corruption. State Capture represents a form of corruption Introduced by Hellman and Kaufmann and used by the World Bank in 2000.

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