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One can adopt a normative strategy when facing tough ethical choices as it can help people to evaluate and think carefully so as to prevent them from making irrational decisions. Normative ethics provides several philosophical approaches for making sound ethical decisions and it can be categorized into three parts: (a) consequentialist, (b) deontological and (c) virtue theory .The consequentialist theory “focuses attention on the results or consequences of the decision or action . It includes philosophical approaches like egoism and utilitarianism. Egoism promotes an individual’s long-term interests while utilitarianism holds ethical actions as those done for the greatest good or to maximize total utility. On the contrary, the deontological theory focuses on the rights of individuals and on the intentions associated with a particular behavior rather than on its consequences.and it embraces philosophical approaches like Kantianism and justice. Kantianism revolve around duty, not end goals or emotions, and their actions are performed according to some underlying principle or maxim that are entirely different from one another (e.g. honesty, fairness and justice), while the philosophical view of justice is rooted in one’s belief in moral equity and equitable treatment for everyone concerned with a questionable action. Lastly, the virtue ethics approach focuses more on the integrity of the moral actor than on the moral act itself .


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